Smoking causes damage to DNA - increasing the risk of cancer - which is passed on to children by their parents.
.Researchers did not investigate whether DNA damage influenced the infants' cancer or other disease risk.
It is already known that smoking during pregnancy harms the unborn child.The study suggests that fathers who smoke regularly before conception may damage their children (at a genetic level), but it doesn't demonstrate how parental smoking affects infant health.
Where did the story posturasdeyogafaciles.comme from?
Researchers from different countries conducted the study, led by a team from the University of Bradford.It was funded by the NewGeneris Integrated Project of the European Union and carried out in the peer-reviewed journals of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.
In their study, the researchers examined the possible effects of exposure to environmental and lifestyle toxins (such as tobacco smoke) before and during conception and pregnancy.These were being tested to see if these would affect the DNA of newborns.Unfortunately, this study did not examine whether DNA damage contributed to cancer risk, or to any other disease risk in infants.We need more evidence before we can believe there is a connection between fathers smoking and DNA damage to their children.
What kind of research was this?
In this study, mothers and their babies and their fathers' blood and sperm were examined in order to determine whether genetic damage was passed on from one parent to the next and which lifestyle factors might be associated with that damage, if any.
Research on this phenomenon should be conducted using posturasdeyogafaciles.comhorts.Hence, the lifestyle and environmental exposures came before the pregnancy.This type of study is difficult to prove cause and effect, however, since the role of genetics and environment is hard to separate.
What did the research involve?
In a study, blood and semen samples from newborns' parents were analyzed to see if genetic damage present in their DNA was inherited by the infant.In their study, the researchers evaluated whether parental DNA damage was linked to the presence of toxins, such as tobacco smoke.
We obtained information from all 39 participating families by using a structured questionnaire and medical reposturasdeyogafaciles.comrds.
.Posturasdeyogafaciles.comtinine is a chemical circulating in the body that is the result of niposturasdeyogafaciles.comtine breakdown.As a result, the amount of posturasdeyogafaciles.comtinine in the blood increases with the amount of exposure to smoke (either direct exposure or second-hand smoke).
From a hospital in Bradford (15) and a medical school at the University of Crete (24), the researchers collected umbilical cord blood from 39 newborns and peripheral blood from their mothers.We collected blood samples from all fathers of newborns, while we collected samples of semen from 15 fathers.Men's sperm DNA was also examined for DNA damage.
A DNA sample from the sperm and a blood sample from lymphocytes (cells) was isolated and analyzed.A section of DNA called the "*H2AX foci" was analyzed to see if there was DNA damage including single and double strand breaks.This gene produces a large amount of protein if it is impaired.The researchers examined the level of this protein in the cells from the blood samples.
As part of the study, we analyzed maternal, paternal, and newborn characteristics (such as smoking and alcohol consumption) as predictors of the amount of DNA damage in the newborn baby.
What were the basic results?
A significant relationship was found between maternal smoking during pregnancy and paternal smoking at the time of conception in terms of the impact of DNA damage at the H2AX foci in newborns.Researchers found that maternal seposturasdeyogafaciles.comnd-hand smoke exposure did not affect DNA damage in the newborn's blood based on results from the subgroup analysis.
How did the researchers interpret the results?
Researchers concluded that their findings "indicate a role for cigarette smoking in causing DNA alterations" in human offspring, and that the effects of paternal smoking are possible via sperm DNA.
Based on a study of 39 newborns and their parents, this study found that maternal smoking during pregnancy, as well as paternal smoking prior to pregnancy, predicted the amount of DNA damage in the newborn infants' cord blood, in a section called the "*H2AX foci."
It's important because it points out the potential harm of maternal and paternal smoking before and during pregnancy, but it's not definitive enough to prove that paternal smoking damages the child.
The findings add further weight to the warnings against smoking, but one should keep in mind the limitations of this study before concluding that smoking before conception harms children.Included in these limitations were:
Sample size and lack of diversity
Almost all of the study's participants were Greek parents.It is unclear whether the same associations would be present in a larger, more diverse study population.Studies with a larger sample size posturasdeyogafaciles.comuld address this concern.
No examination of the effect of DNA damage
There was no assessment of the impact of the H2AX-mutated DNA on the health of the infants.It is unclear whether this DNA-level damage contributed to any short- or long-term health problems for the infants now or in the future.
No evidence of how smoking damages sperm DNA
There was no evidence for the biological mechanism leading to genetic changes in the offspring of a smoker.Supposedly, the DNA in the sperm acts as a channel to transmit the signal.
DNA damage posturasdeyogafaciles.comuld have been caused by other factors
As of 2011, researchers were unsure whether smoking caused the genetic damage found in men's blood and sperm or the genetic changes found in infants.It is possible that other environmental factors contributed to the damage not assessed in this study.More extensive studies, which closely monitor other factors influencing sperm DNA, are needed to clarify which factors are most important.
As a result, smoking during pregnancy is particularly dangerous, as it can cause harm to the baby.This study suggests that fathers who smoke regularly prior to conception may also cause genetic damage to their children, but it does not prove this.