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Racial division of the human species based on physical and behavioral traits inherited from each parent.
The many meanings of “race”
A modern understanding of race as it applies to humans developed in the 17th century.Since then, it has had a variety of meanings in Western languages.Essentially, all definitions categorize peoples by their physical differences.According to the United States, the term race is usually used to describe a group of individuals who share some visible physical traits, such as skin color, hair texture, facial features, and eye shapes.
In most of the 20th century, Western scientists identified, described, and classified human races, and documented their differences and relationships.
The number of human races has never been determined by scientists, nor have they agreed on the features used in the identification of races or on the meaning of race since the 17th and 18th centuries when the first attempts at classifying human populations began.Experts suggest a variety of races, ranging from 3 to more than 60, based solely on physical attributes (such as hair type, head shape, skin color, height, etc.).The debate about race and its identification continued into the 21st century, and science is no closer to agreement than it was in the past.Thus, race has never in its history been defined precisely.
Despite widespread belief that races are physically distinct populations, scientific advancements in the 20th century proved that human physical diversity does not align with a "racial" model.Rather, individual differences overlap.There are no genes that identify various racial groups as defined by conventional race categories.The DNA analysis of all humans revealed that they have more in common genetically than they do differences.Genetic differences between two humans rarely exceed one percent.Additionally, geographically disparate populations share only a little more than 10% of their genes.Modern researchers have concluded that race has no biological validity due to the overlapping of traits that bear no relationship to one another (such as skin color and hair texture).
Scholars in other disciplines are now accepting this relatively new understanding of biological diversity in humans. .Its most salient characteristics derive from the social consequences of its classification.European exploration and colonization led to the emergence of the concept of race in the late 17th century, as a metaphor for the differences between Europeans, Amerindians, and Africans that were brought together in the New World.After the abolition of slavery in the 19th century, the ideology fully emerged as a new mechanism of social division and stratification.